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Sherwin Carlquist in the field.


Sherwin Carlquist ~ 1957


Sherwin Carlquist ~ 1957


Sherwin Carlquist ~ 1974


Sherwin Carlquist in the lab.


Sherwin Carlquist at the scanning electron microscope.

BIOGRAPHY AND PUBLICATIONS

  Sherwin Carlquist: Born: July 7, 1930

  Academic experience: B.A., University of California, Berkeley, 1952; Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, 1956. Postdoctoral study, Harvard University, 1955-56 (three NSF fellowships during graduate and postdoctoral years).

  Positions held: Assistant Professor of Botany, Claremont Graduate School, 1956-1961; Associate Professor, 1961-1967; Professor, 1967-1992. Position funded jointly by Claremont Graduate School and Pomona College, 1977-1984 (title of Professor of Biology also held at Pomona College during that period).  Position funded jointly by Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden and Pomona College, 1984-1992 (during which time the title of Plant Anatomist was held at Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, and the titles as Professor were retained at Claremont Graduate School and Pomona College).  Adjunct Professor of Biological Sciences, University of California at Santa Barbara, 1993-1998.

  Grants received: Eight research grants from National Science Foundation, 1962-1988. John  Simon Guggenheim Fellow, 1973.  Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Fellow, 1982.  Smaller grants from American Chemical Society, Chevron Research Corporation, American Philosophical Society (2), and National Geographic Society (2).

  Awards: Other than academic honors (including Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Xi): Gleason Prize of the New York Botanical Garden (best contribution to biogeography) for Island Life, 1967; career award (Certificate of Merit), Botanical Society of America, 1977; Fellow, International Academy of Wood Science, 1987.  Allerton Medal of the National Tropical Botanical Garden, 1992.  Asa Gray Award, American Society of Plant Taxonomists, 1993.  Career Award, Santa Barbara Botanic Garden, 1996.  Fellows' Medal, California Academy of Sciences, 1996.  Margaret T. Getman Teaching Award, University of California at Santa Barbara, 1996. José Cuatrecasas Medal in Botany, Smithsonian Institution, 2006.  Half-day symposium honoring the scientific work, “Using anatomy to vascularize tropical botany, ecology, and systematics: the contributions of Sherwin Carlquist to the botanical sciences,” presented at the Chicago meetings of the Botanical Society of America, 2007. 

  Invited lectures: University of Alberta (s), U. California (Berkeley), U. C. (Davis), U. C. (Riverside), U. C. (Santa Barbara), Colorado State University, Cornell University (s), Duke University, Harvard University, Indiana University (s), University of Florida (s), University of Maryland, Miami University (Ohio), University of Missouri (s), University of Nebraska (s), University of North Carolina, North Carolina State University, Ohio State University (s) Ohio University (s), Utah State University, Whitman College (s), University of Wisconsin (s), Yale University.  At institutions followed by (s), a lecture series or endowed lectures were given. Visiting Distinguished Professor of Botany, University of Florida, May-June, 1980.

  Symposia: International Botanical Congress, Montreal; International Botanical Congress, Seattle; Pacific Science Congress, Honolulu (1961); Symposium on Insular Biology, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico (1969); Symposium on Plant Dispersal, Hamburg (1981); Symposium on Ecological Wood Anatomy, AIBS (1985); Symposium on Phylogeny of the Asteridae, AIBS (1991); Pacific Woods Symposium of IAWA at NTBG, Kauai, (1992); Symposium on the Ranunculiflorae, University of Bayreuth (1994); Symposium on Phylogeny and Relationships of Gnetales, AIBS (1995); Symposium on Preserving Biodiversity, BSA meetings (2007). 

  Courses taught: Plant anatomy; Comparative plant anatomy; Morphology of pteridophytes and gymnosperms; morphology of algae, fungi, and bryophytes; Plant microtechnique; Principles of evolution; Pacific basin biogeography; Plant taxonomy; Palynology; scanning electron microscopy  course; Island Biology; graduate seminars; portions of an elementary biology course; Botanical German reading course; Freshman seminar; various tutorial courses.

  Field work:
 1953, Revillagigedo Islands
 Hawaiian Islands: 1953, 1958, 1961, 1965, 1966, 1972, 1974, 1976, 1985.
 1957: Guadalupe I., Mexico (1 week)
 1962-1963: 15 months in S. Pacific and Orient, including Society Islands, Samoa, Fiji, New Caledonia, New Hebrides, New Guinea, New Zealand, Australia, Cambodia, Taiwan, Japan.
 1973: Malaya (3 weeks); South Africa (5 months)
 1974: Western Australia (including desert center) (4 months)
 1976: Southeastern U.S. (1 month)
 1977: study in Herbarium of the Royal Botanic Garden, Kew, and Herbarium, Mus‚e d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris; Field work in Malaya, Northern Territory, Queensland, New Caledonia, and Fiji.
    1978: helicopter-aided reconnaissance of the Arnhem Land sandstone plateau, Northern Territory; field work in New Caledonia (including climb of Mt. Panié); Sabah (Mt. Kinabalu).
 1980: southern Florida, especially Everglades and Keys
 1981: botanical gardens and natural areas in Germany, Sweden, and Denmark.
 1982: Japan (3 months), including 3 Ryukyu Islands, 3 Bonin Islands, plus various montane areas on Honshu and Kyushu; Peru and Chile (3 months).
 1984: Texas, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona
 1988: Sonora, Mexico
 1989: Namibia, Malaysia, subantarctic islands of New Zealand

  About Sherwin Carlquist: Wagner, Warren L. 1994.  Sherwin Carlquist--Recipient of the 1993 Asa Gray Award.  Syst. Bot. 19:1-5.

  Books:

  1961. Comparative Plant Anatomy. Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York. ix + 146 p.

  1965. Island Life. A Natural History of the Islands of the World. Natural History Press, New York. xii + 455 p.

  1965. Japanese Festivals (with Helen Bauer).  Doubleday & Co., New York. 224 p. (reprinted, 1974, Charles E. Tuttle & Co., Tokyo. 231 p.).

  1970. Hawaii. A Natural History. Natural History Press, New York.  ix + 463 p. (second edition, 1980, by Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii, ix + 468 p.)

  1974. Island Biology.  Columbia University Press, New York & London. xii + 660 p.

  1975. Ecological Strategies of Xylem Evolution.  University of California Press, Berkeley & London.  x + 243 p. + index + 15 pls.

  1988. Comparative Wood Anatomy. Springer Verlag, Berlin and Heidelberg. x + 436 p. (second edition, 2001.  Springer Verlag, Berlin and Heidelberg, x + 448 p.)
 
   2003. Tarweeds and Silverswords: Evolution of the Madiinae (Asteraceae).  Edited by S. Carlquist, Bruce G. Baldwin, and Gerald D. Carr.  Missouri Botanical Garden Press. 293 p.

  Papers (shorter articles, popular articles, reviews, abstracts, etc. omitted from this listing):

Most of these papers are optically searchable (OCR). That means that within the Portable Document Format (PDF) for any particular papers, you can search for particular terms, phenomena, names, etc, and locate mentions of them throughout a given paper. In order to do this, open the documents in the reader of your choice (i.e. Adobe Acrobat) and find that reader's search function.

PDFs are available for nearly all of the papers listed below, as indicated by the [ PDF ] at the end of each citation for which a PDF is available. PDFs may be copied from the site by downloading the particular document to your computer.

PDFs of about 300 papers are now available on this site. PDFs have not been included for papers that have been superseded or that have illustrations that have since been bettered.

  1956. On the occurrence of intercellular pectic warts in Compositae.  Amer. Jour. Bot. 43:425-429.[ PDF ]

  1956. On the generic limits of Eriophyllum (Compositae) and allied genera.  Madroño 13:226-239.[ PDF ]

  1957. Wood anatomy of Mutisieae (Compositae).  Trop. Woods 106:29-45.[ PDF ]

  1957.  Systematic anatomy of Hesperomannia.  Pacific Sci. 11:207-215.[ PDF ]

  1957. Anatomy of Guayana Mutisieae.  Mem. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 9:441-476.[ PDF ]

  1957. The genus Fitchia (Compositae).  Univ. California Publ. Bot. 29:1-144.

  1957.  Leaf anatomy and ontogeny in Argyroxiphium and Wilkesia (Compositae).  Amer. Jour. Bot. 44:696-705. [ PDF ]

  1958. Wood anatomy of Heliantheae (Compositae).  Trop. Woods 108:1-30.[ PDF ]

  1958. Anatomy and systematic position of Centaurodendron and Yunquea (Compositae).  Brittonia 10:78-93.[ PDF ]

  1958. Anatomy of Guayana Mutisieae. Part II. Mem. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 10:157-184.[ PDF ]

  1958. The woods and flora of the Florida Keys. Compositae. Trop. Woods 109:1-37.

  1958.  Structure and ontogeny of glandular trichomes of Madinae (Compositae).  Amer. Jour. Bot. 45:675-682. [ PDF ]

  1959. The leaf of Calycadenia and its glandular appendages. Amer. Jour. Bot. 46:70-80. [ PDF ]

  1959. Glandular structures of Holocarpha and their ontogeny.  Amer. Jour. Bot. 46:300-308. [ PDF ]

  1959. Studies on Madinae: anatomy, cytology, and evolutionary relationships.  Aliso 4:171-236. [ PDF ]

1959. Vegetative anatomy of Dubautia. Argyroxiphium, and Wilkesia (Compositae).  Pacific Sci. 13:195-210. [ PDF ]

  1959.  Wood anatomy of Helenieae (Compositae).  Trop. Woods 111:19-39.[ PDF ]

  1960. Anatomy of Guayana Xyridaceae: Abolboda, Orectanthe, and Achlyphila.  Mem. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 10:65-117.[ PDF ]

  1960. Wood anatomy of Cichorieae (Compositae).  Trop. Woods 112:65-91.[ PDF ]

  1960. Wood anatomy of Astereae (Compositae).  Trop. Woods 113:54-84.[ PDF ]

  1961. Wood anatomy of Inuleae (Compositae).  Aliso 5:21-37.[ PDF ]

  1961. Pollen morphology of Rapateaceae.  Aliso 5:39-66.[ PDF ]

  1962. Trematolobelia: seed dispersal; anatomy of fruit and seeds. Pacific Sci. 16:126-134.[ PDF ]

  1962. A theory of paedomorphosis in dicotyledonous woods.  Phytomorphology 12:30-45. [ PDF ]

  1962. Wood anatomy of Senecioneae (Compositae).  Aliso 5:123-146.[ PDF ]

  1962.  Ontogeny and comparative anatomy of thorns of Hawaiian Lobeliaceae.  Amer. Jour. Bot. 49:413-419.[ PDF ]

  1963.  Studies in Fitchia (Compositae): novelties from the Society Islands; anatomical studies.  Pacific Sci. 17:282-298 (with Martin L. Grant).[ PDF ]

  1964.  Morphology and relationships of Lactoridaceae.  Aliso 5:421-435.[ PDF ]

  1964.  Leaf anatomy as an indicator of Salvia apiana--mellifera introgression.  Aliso 5:437-449 (with Alice-Ann Webb). [ PDF ]

  1964.  Wood anatomy of Vernonieae (Compositae).  Aliso 5:451-467.[ PDF ]

  1964. Pollen morphology and evolution of Sarcolaenaceae (Chlaenaceae).  Brittonia 16:231-254. [ PDF ]

  1965. Wood anatomy of Cynareae (Compositae). Aliso 6(1):13-24.[ PDF ]

  1965. Wood anatomy of Eupatorieae (Compositae).  Aliso 6(1):89-103.[ PDF ]

  1966. The systematics and anatomy of Gongylocarpus (Onagraceae).  Amer. Jour. Bot. 53:378-390 (with Peter H. Raven).[ PDF ]

  1966. Anatomy of Rapateaceae.  Roots and stems.  Phytomorphology 16:17-38.[ PDF ]

  1966. The biota of long-distance dispersal. I. Principles of dispersal and evolution.  Quart. Rev. Biol. 41:247-270.[ PDF ]

  1966. The biota of long-distance dispersal. II. Loss of dispersibility in Pacific Compositae. Evolution 20:30-48. [ PDF ]

  1966. The biota of long-distance dispersal. III. Loss of dispersibility in the Hawaiian flora.  Brittonia 18:310-335. [ PDF ]

  1966. The biota of long-distance dispersal. IV. Genetic systems in the floras of oceanic islands.  Evolution 20:433-455. [ PDF ]

  1966. Wood anatomy of Anthemideae, Ambrosieae, Calenduleae, and Arctotideae (Compositae).  Aliso 6(2):1-23.[ PDF ]

  1966. Wood anatomy of Compositae: a summary, with comments on factors controlling wood evolution.  Aliso 6(2):25-44. [ PDF ]

  1967. The biota of long-distance dispersal. V. Plant dispersal to Pacific islands.  Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 94:129-162. [ PDF ]

  1967. Anatomy and systematics of Dendroseris (sensu lato). Brittonia 19:99-121.[ PDF ]

  1969. Studies in Stylidiaceae: new taxa, field observations, evolutionary tendencies.  Aliso 7:13-64.[ PDF ]

  1969. Toward acceptable evolutionary interpretations of floral anatomy.  Phytomorphology 19:332-362. [ PDF ]

  1969. Rapateaceae. In P. B. Tomlinson, ed., Anatomy of the Monocotyledons.  III.  Commelinales--Zingiberales (pp. 130-145). Oxford University Press, oxford.

  1969. Wood anatomy of Goodeniaceae and the problem of insular woodiness.  Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 56:358-390.[ PDF ]

  1969. Wood anatomy of Lobelioideae (Campanulaceae). Biotropica 1:47-72. [ PDF ]

  1969. Morphology and anatomy.  In J. Ewan, ed., A short history of botany in the United States (pp. 49-57).  Hafner Pub. Co., New York & London.

  1970. Wood anatomy of Hawaiian, Macaronesian, and other species of Euphorbia.  Bot. Jour. Linnean Soc. Vol. 63, suppl. 1, pp. 181-193 (this volume issued as N. K. B. Robson, D. F. Cutler, and M. Gregory, eds., New research in plant anatomy.  Academic Press, New York & London. [ PDF ]

  1970. Wood anatomy of Echium (Boraginaceae). Aliso 7:183-199. [ PDF ]

  1970.  Wood anatomy of insular species of Plantago and the problem of raylessness.  Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 97:353-361. [ PDF]

  1971. Wood anatomy of Macaronesian and other Brassicaceae.  Aliso 7:365-384. [ PDF ]

  1972. Plant anatomy's 300th anniversary.  In, A. K. M. Ghouse & M. Yunus, eds., Research trends in Plant Anatomy--K. A. Chowdhury Commemoration Volume (pp. 1-6).  Tata McGraw hill Pub. Co. Ltd., New Delhi. [ PDF ]

  1972. Island biology: we've only just begun. BioScience 22:221-225.[ PDF ]

  1975. Wood anatomy of Onagraceae, with notes on alternative modes of photosynthate movement in dicotyledon woods.  Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 62:386-424. [ PDF ]

  1975. Philip A. Munz, botanist and friend.  Aliso 8:211-220.

  1975. Wood anatomy and relationships of the Geissolomataceae.  Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 102:128-134. [ PDF ]

  1976. Wood anatomy of Myrothamnus flabellifolia (Myrothamnaceae) and the problem of multiperforate perforation plates.  Jour. Arnold Arb. 57:119-126. [ PDF ]
 
  1976. Wood anatomy of Byblidaceae.  Bot. Gaz. 137:35-38. [ PDF ]

  1976. Alexgeorgea, a bizarre new genus of Restionaceae from Western Australia.  Austral. Jour. Bot. 24:281-295. [ PDF ]
 
  1976.  New species of Stylidium, and notes on Stylidiaceae from Western Australia.  Aliso 8:447-463. [ PDF ]

  1976. Tribal relationships and phylogeny of Asteraceae.  Aliso 8:465-492.

  1976.  Wood anatomy of Roridulaceae: ecological and phylogenetic implications. Amer. Jour. Bot. 63:1003-1008. [ PDF ]

  1976.  Leaf anatomy of Hawaiian Geraniums in relation to ecology and taxonomy.  Biotropica 8:248-259 (with Donald R. Bissing). [ PDF ]

  1977. A revision of Grubbiaceae. Jour. S. Afr. Bot. 43:115-128. [ PDF ]

  1977. Wood anatomy of Grubbiaceae.  Jour. S. Afr. Bot. 43:129-144. [ PDF ]

  1977. Wood anatomy of Tremandraceae: phylogenetic and ecological implications.  Amer. Jour. Bot. 64:704-713. [ PDF ]

  1977. Ecological factors in wood evolution: a floristic approach.  Amer. Jour. Bot. 64:887-896. [ PDF ]

  1977. Wood anatomy of Penaeaceae (Myrtales): comparative, phylogenetic, and ecological implications.  Bot. Jour. Linnean Soc. 75:211-227 (with Larry DeBuhr). [ PDF ]

  1977. Wood anatomy of Onagraceae: additional species and concepts.  Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 64:627-637. [ PDF ]

  1978. Wood anatomy and relationships of Bataceae, Gyrostemonaceae, and Stylobasiaceae.  Allertonia 1:297-330. [ PDF ]

  1978. Vegetative anatomy and systematics of Grubbiaceae.  Botaniska Notiser 131:117-136. [ PDF ]

  1978. New species of Stylidium, with comments on evolutionary patterns in tropical Stylidiaceae.  Aliso 9:308-322. [ PDF ]
 
  1978. Wood anatomy of Bruniaceae: correlations with ecology, phylogeny, and organography.  Aliso 9:323-364. [ PDF ]

  1979. Stylidium in Arnhem Land: new species, modes of speciation on the sandstone plateau, and comments on floral mimicry.  Aliso 9:411-461. [ PDF ]

  1980. Anatomy and systematics of Balanopaceae.  Allertonia 2:191-246. [ PDF ]

  1980. Further concepts in ecological wood anatomy, with comments on recent work in wood anatomy and evolution.  Aliso 9:499-553. [ PDF ]

  1981. Wood anatomy of Pittosporaceae.  Allertonia 2:355-392.[ PDF ]

  1981.  Types of cambial activity and wood anatomy of Stylidium (Stylidiaceae).  Amer. J. Bot. 68:778-785. [ PDF ]

  1981. Chance dispersal.  Amer. Sci. 69:509-516. [ PDF ]

  1981. Wood anatomy of Nepenthaceae.  Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 108:324-330. [ PDF ]

  1981. Wood anatomy of Chloanthaceae (Dicrastylidaceae). Aliso 10:19-34. [ PDF ]

  1981. Studies in Stylidiaceae: monocotyly in the family; nomenclatural change.  Aliso 10:35-38. [ PDF ]

  1981. Wood anatomy of Cephalotaceae.  IAWA Bull., n.s. 2:175-178.[ PDF ]

  1981. Wood anatomy of Zygogynum (Winteraceae); field observations.  Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. nat., Paris, 4 ser., Adansonia 3:281-292. [ PDF ]

  1982. Wood anatomy of Dipsacaceae. Taxon 31:443-450. [ PDF ]

  1982. Exospermum stipitatum (Winteraceae): observations on wood, leaves, flowers, pollen, and fruit. Aliso 10:277-289. [ PDF ]

  1982. Wood anatomy of Darwiniothamnus, Lecocarpus, and Macraea (Asteraceae). Aliso 10:291-300 (with Vincent M. Eckhart). [ PDF ]

  1982. Wood and bark anatomy of Scalesia (Asteraceae). Aliso 10:301-312. [ PDF ]

  1982. Wood anatomy of Buxaceae: correlations with ecology and phylogeny. Flora 172:463-491. [ PDF ]

  1982. Wood anatomy of Daphniphyllaceae: ecological and phylogenetic considerations, review of pittosporalean families. Brittonia 34:252-266. [ PDF ]

  1982. The use of ethylenediamine in softening hard plant structures for paraffin sectioning. Stain Techn. 57:311-317. [ PDF ]

  1982. Wood anatomy of Illicium (Illiciaceae): phylogenetic, ecological, and functional interpretations. Amer. J. Bot. 69:1587-1598. [ PDF ]

  1982. Wood anatomy of Onagraceae: further species; root anatomy; significance of vestured pits and allied structures in dicotyledons. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 69:755-769. [ PDF ]

  1983. Wood anatomy of Belliolum (Winteraceae); and a note on flowering. J. Arnold Arb. 64:161-169. [ PDF ]

  1983. Wood anatomy of Bubbia (Winteraceae), with comments on origin of vessels in dicotyledons. Amer. J. Bot. 70:578-590. [ PDF ]

  1983. Observations on the vegetative anatomy of Crepidiastrum and Dendrocacalia (Asteraceae). Aliso 10:383-395. [ PDF ]

  1983. Wood anatomy of Hydrophyllaceae. I. Eriodictyon. Aliso 10:397-412 (with Vincent M. Eckhart and David C. Michener). [ PDF ]

  1983. Wood anatomy of Calyceraceae and Valerianaceae, with comments on aberrant perforation plates in predominantly herbaceous groups of dicotyledons. Aliso 10:413-425. [ PDF ]

  1983. Wood anatomy of Calycanthaceae: ecological and systematic implications. Aliso 10:427-441. [ PDF ]

  1983. Intercontinental dispersal. Sonderb. Naturwiss. Verh. Hamburg 7:37-47. [ PDF ]

  1984. Wood anatomy of Trimeniaceae. Plant Syst. Evol. 144:103-118. [ PDF ]

  1984. Wood and stem anatomy of Lardizabalaceae, with comments on the vining habit, ecology, and systematics. Bot. Jour. Linnean Soc. 88:257-277. [ PDF ]

  1984. Vessel grouping in dicotyledon wood: significance and relationship to imperforate tracheary elements. Aliso 10:505-525. [ PDF ]

  1984. Wood anatomy of Hydrophyllaceae. II. Genera other than Eriodictyon, with comments on parenchyma bands containing vessels with large pits. Aliso 10:527-546 (with Vincent M. Eckhart). [ PDF ]

  1984. Wood anatomy of Polemoniaceae. Aliso 10:547-572 (with Vincent M. Eckhart and David C. Michener). [ PDF ]

  1984. Wood anatomy of some Gentianaceae: systematic and ecological conclusions. Aliso 10:573-582. [ PDF ]

  1984. Wood anatomy of Loasaceae with relation to systematics, habit, and ecology. Aliso 10:583-602.[ PDF ]

  1984. Wood and stem anatomy of Bergia suffruticosa: relationships of Elatinaceae and broader significance of vascular tracheids, vasicentric tracheids, and fibriform vessel elements. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 71:232-242. [ PDF ]

  1984. Wood anatomy and relationships of Pentaphylacaceae: significance of vessel features. Phytomorphology 34:84-90. [ PDF ]

  1984. Wood anatomy of Malesherbiaceae. Phytomorphology 34:180-190.[ PDF ]

  1985. Wood and stem anatomy of Misodendraceae: systematic and ecological conclusions. Brittonia 37:58-75. [ PDF ]

  1985. Wood anatomy of Coriariaceae: phylogenetic and ecological implications. Syst. Bot. 10:174-183. [ PDF ]

  1985. Systematic anatomy of Oceanopapaver, a monotypic genus of the Capparaceae from New Caledonia. Bot. Jour. Linnean Soc. 89:119-152 (with R. Schmid, L. D. Hufford, and G. L. Webster).

  1985. Wood anatomy of Begoniaceae, with comments on raylessness, paedomorphosis, relationships, vessel diameter, and ecology. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 112:59-69. [ PDF ]

  1985. Vasicentric tracheids as a drought survival mechanism in the woody flora of southern California and similar regions; review of vasicentric tracheids. Aliso 11:37-68. [ PDF ]

  1985. Vegetative anatomy and familial placement of Tovaria. Aliso 11:69-76. [ PDF ]

  1985. Wind dispersal in Californian desert plants: experimental studies and conceptual considerations. Aliso 11:77-96 (with Jay C. Maddox).  [ PDF ]

  1985. Wood anatomy of Staphyleaceae: ecology, statistical correlations, and systematics. Flora 177:195-216 (with David A. Hoekman). [ PDF ]

  1985. Ecological wood anatomy of the woody southern California flora. IAWA Bull., n.s., 6:319-347. [ PDF ]

  1985. A comparison of the ecological wood anatomy of the floras of southern California and Israel. IAWA Bull., n.s., 6:349-353 (with Pieter Baas).

  1985. Familial position of the Cape genus Empleuridium. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 72:167-183 (with Peter Goldblatt, Hiroshi Tobe, and Varsha C. Patel). [ PDF ]

  1985. Observations on functional wood histology of vines and lianas: vessel dimorphism, tracheids, vasicentric tracheids, narrow vessels, and parenchyma. Aliso 11:139-157 [ PDF ]

  1985. Wood anatomy and familial status of Viviania. Aliso 11:159-165. [ PDF ]

  1985. Experimental studies on epizoochorous dispersal in Californian plants. Aliso 11:167-177 (with Quinn Pauly). [ PDF ]

  1986. Terminology of imperforate tracheary elements. IAWA Bull., n.s., 7:75-81.

  1986. Terminology of imperforate tracheary elements: a reply. IAWA Bull., n.s., 7:168-170.

  1986. Wood anatomy of Gesneriaceae. Aliso 11:279-297 (with David A. Hoekman). [ PDF ]

  1986. Wood anatomy of Stilbaceae and Retziaceae: ecological and systematic implications. Aliso 11:299-316. [ PDF ]

  1986. Wood anatomy of Myoporaceae: ecological and systematic considerations. Aliso 11:317-334 (with David A. Hoekman). [ PDF ]

  1987. Wood anatomy and relationships of Stackhousiaceae.  Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 108:473-480. [ PDF ]

  1987. Diagonal and tangential vessel aggregations in wood: function and relationship to vasicentric tracheids. Aliso 11:451-462. [ PDF ]

  1987. Wood anatomy of Nolanaceae. Aliso 11:463-471. [ PDF ]

  1987. Wood anatomy of Martyniaceae and Pedaliaceae. Aliso 11:473-483. [ PDF ]

  1987. Wood anatomy of Plakothira (Loasaceae). Aliso 11:563-569.[ PDF ]

  1987. Pliocene Nothofagus wood from the Transantarctic Mountains. Aliso 11:571-583. [ PDF ]

  1987. Presence of vessels in wood of Sarcandra (Chloranthaceae); comments on vessel origins in angiosperms. Amer. J. Bot. 74:1765-1771. [ PDF ]

  1987. Wood anatomy of noteworthy species of Ludwigia (Onagraceae) with relation to ecology and systematics.  Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 74:889-896. [ PDF ]

  1988. Near-vessellessness in Ephedra and its significance. Amer. Jour. Bot. 75:598-601. [ PDF ]

  1988. Wood anatomy and relationships of Duckeodendraceae and Goetzeaceae.  IAWA Bull, n.s., 9:3-12. [ PDF ]

  1988. Wood anatomy of Cneoraceae: ecology, relationships, and generic definition.  Aliso 12:7-16. [ PDF ]

  1988. Wood anatomy of Scytopetalaceae.  Aliso 12:63-76. [ PDF ]

  1988. Wood anatomy of Drimys s. s. (Winteraceae).  Aliso 12:81-95. [ PDF ]

  1988. Tracheid dimorphism: a new pathway in evolution of imperforate tracheary elements.  Aliso 12:103-118. [ PDF ]

  1988. Wood anatomy of Acanthaceae: a survey. Aliso 12:201-227 (with Scott Zona). [ PDF ]

  1988. Wood anatomy of Papaveraceae, with comments on vessel restriction patterns.  IAWA Bull., n.s., 9:253-267 (with Scott Zona).

  1988. Fuchsia pachyrhiza Onagraceae), a tuberous new species and section of Fuchsia from western Peru (with Paul E. Berry, Bruce A. Stein, and Joan Nowicke).  Syst. Bot. 13:483-492. [ PDF ]

  1989. Adaptive wood anatomy of chaparral shrubs. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Science Series 34:25-35.[ PDF ]

  1989. Wood anatomy of Cercidium (Fabaceae), with emphasis on vessel wall sculpture. Aliso 12:235-255. [ PDF ]

  1989. Wood anatomy of Tasmannia; summary of wood anatomy of Winteraceae. Aliso 12:257-275. [ PDF ]

  1989. Wood anatomy and relationships of Montinia. Aliso 12:369-378.[ PDF ]

  1989. Two new species of Stylidium from Western Australia.  Phytologia 67:368-376 (with Allen Lowrie).

  1989. Balanopaceae. In A. S. George, exec. ed., Flora of Australia. Vol. 3. Hamamelidales to Casuarinales, pp. 93-95. Australian Gov't Publishing Service, Canberra.

  1989. Wood and bark anatomy of the New World species of Ephedra.  Aliso 12:441-483. [ PDF ]

  1989. Wood and bark anatomy of Degeneria. Aliso 12:485-495. [ PDF ]

  1989. Wood and bark anatomy of Empetraceae; comments on paedomorphosis in woods of certain small shrubs.  Aliso 12:497-515. [ PDF ]

  1990. Wood anatomy of Ascarina (Chloranthaceae) and the tracheid--vessel element transition. Aliso 12:687-684. [ PDF ]

  1990. Worst case scenarios for island conservation: the endemic biota of Hawaii. In D. R. Towns, C. H. Daugherty, and I. A. S. Atkinson, eds., Ecological Restoration of New Zealand Islands, pp. 207-212. Conservation Sciences Publication no. 2.  Dept. of Conservation, Wellington.

  1990. Wood anatomy and relationships of Lactoridaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 77:1498-1505. [ PDF ]

  1990. Leaf anatomy of Geissolomataceae and Myrothamnaceae as a possible indicator of relationship to Bruniaceae. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 117:420-428.

  1990. A new species of tuberous Drosera from Western Australia. Phytologia 69:160-162 (with Allen Lowrie).

  1991. Wood and stem anatomy of Convolvulaceae. A survey. Aliso 13:51-94 (with Michael A. Hanson). [ PDF ]

  1991. Wood and bark anatomy of Ticodendron: comments on relationships.  Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 78:96-104. [ PDF ]

  1991. Leaf anatomy of Bruniaceae: ecological, systematic, and physiological aspects.  Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 107:1-34. [ PDF ]

  1991. Studies in Stylidium from Western Australia: new taxa; rediscoveries and range extensions.  Phytologia 71:5-28 (with Allen Lowrie). [ PDF ]

  1991. Anatomy of vine and liana stems: a review and synthesis. In F. E. Putz & H. A. Mooney, eds., The biology of vines (pp. 73-97).  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. [ PDF ]

  1992. Wood, bark, and pith anatomy of the Old World species of Ephedra; summary of wood anatomy of Ephedra.  Aliso 13:255-295. [ PDF ]

  1992. Wood anatomy of Lamiaceae.  A survey, with comments on vascular and vasicentric tracheids. Aliso 13:309-338. [ PDF ]

  1992. Wood anatomy of Solanaceae. A survey. Allertonia 6:279-326. [ PDF ]
  
  1992. Wood anatomy and stem of Chloranthus; summary of wood anatomy of Chloranthaceae, with comments on relationships, vessellessness, and the origin of monocotyledons. IAWA Bull., n.s., 13:3-36. [ PDF ]

  1992. Wood anatomy of sympetalous dicotyledon families: a summary. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 79:303-332. [ PDF ]

  1992. Vegetative anatomy and relationships of Eupomatiaceae.  Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 119:167-180. [ PDF ]

  1992. Wood anatomy of selected Cucurbitaceae and its relationship to habit and systematics.  Nordic J. Bot. 12:347-355. [ PDF ]

  1992. Pit membrane remnants in perforation plates of primitive dicotyledons and their significance. Amer. J. Bot. 79:660-672. [ PDF ]

  1992. Wood anatomy of Hedyosmum (Chloranthaceae) and the tracheid-vessel element transition.  Aliso 13:447-462. [ PDF ]
           
  1992. Nonglandular trichomes of Californian and Hawaiian tarweeds: surface ultrastructure and its significance. Aliso 13:487-498 (with Andrew A. MacLachlan). [ PDF ]

  1992. Eight new taxa of Drosera from Australia. Phytologia 73:98-116 (with Allen Lowrie). [ PDF ]

  1993. Wood anatomy of Sabiaceae (s. l.): ecological and systematic implications. Aliso 13:521-549 (with Peter L. Morrell and Steven R. Manchester). [ PDF ]

  1993. Wood and bark anatomy of Aristolochiaceae: systematic and habital correlations. IAWA Journal 14:341-357. [ PDF ]

  1994. Wood and bark anatomy of Argemone (Papaveraceae). IAWA Journal 15:247-255. (with Edward L. Schneider and Regis B. Miller). [ PDF ]

  1994. Anatomy of tropical alpine plants. In, Philip W. Rundel, Alan P. Smith, and F. C. Meinzer, eds., Tropical alpine environments (pp. 111-128). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. [ PDF ]

  1994. Wood and bark anatomy of Gnetum gnemon L.  Bot. Jour. Linnean Soc. 116:203-221. [ PDF ]

  1995. Wood anatomy of Caryophyllaceae: ecological, habital, systematic and phylogenetic implications.  Aliso 14:1-17. [ PDF ]

  1995. Comparative wood anatomy: new directions and opportunities. In, M. Iqbal, ed., The cambium and its products. Handbuch der Pflanzenanatomie Spezieller Teil IX(4):173-185.  Gebrder Borntraeger, Berlin & Stuttgart.

  1995. Wood and stem anatomy of Saururaceae with reference to ecology, phylogeny, and origin of the monocotyledons. IAWA Jour. 16:133-150. (with Karen Dauer and Stefanie Nishimura). [ PDF ]

  1995. Wood anatomy of Drosophyllum (Droseraceae); ecological and phylogenetic considerations.  Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 122:185-189. (with Erika J. Wilson). [ PDF ]

  1995. Introduction, In, Warren L. Wagner and Vicki A. Funk, eds., Hawaiian biogeography: evolution on a hot-spot archipelago (pp. 1-13). Smithsonian Press, Washington, D. C.

  1995. Vessels in the roots of Barclaya rotundifolia (Nymphaeaceae). Amer. Jour. Bot. 82: 1343-1349. (with Edward L. Schneider).

  1995. Wood and bark anatomy of Ranunculaceae (including Hydrastis) and Glaucidiaceae. Aliso 14:65-84. [ PDF ]

  1995. Wood anatomy of Berberidaceae: ecological and phylogenetic considerations. Aliso 14:85-103. [ PDF ]

  1995. Wood and bark anatomy of the African species of Gnetum Bot. Jour. Linnean Soc. 118: 123-137. (with Alexander A. Robinson). [ PDF ]

  1995. Secondary growth and wood histology of Welwitschia. Bot. Jour. Linnean Soc. 118: 107-121. (with David A. Gowans). [ PDF ]

  1995. Vessels in Nymphaeaceae: Nuphar, Nymphaea, and Ondinea.  International Jour. Plant Sci. 156:857-862. (with Edward L. Schneider, Kelley Beamer, and Alison Kohn).

  1995. Vessel origins in Nymphaeaceae: Euryale and Victoria.  Bot. Jour. Linnean Soc. 119: 185-193 (with Edward L. Schneider).

  1995. Wood anatomy of Ranunculiflorae.  A summary. Plant Systematics and Evolution suppl. vol. 9:11-24. [ PDF ]

  1996. Wood anatomy of primitive angiosperms: new persepctives and syntheses.  In D. W. Taylor and L. J. Hickey, eds., Flowering plant origin, evolution, and phylogeny (pp. 68-90). Chapman & Hall, New York.

  1996. Vessels in Nelumbo (Nelumbonaceae).  Amer. Jour. Bot. Amer. J. Bot. 83:1101-1106 (with Edward L. Schneider).

  1996. Wood, bark and stem anatomy of New World species of Gnetum. Bot. Jour. Linnean Soc. 120:1-19. [ PDF ]

  1996. Wood and stem anatomy of Menispermaceae.  Aliso 14:155-170. [ PDF ]

  1996.  Vessels in Brasenia (Cabombaceae): new perspectives on vessel origin in primary xylem of angiosperms.  Amer. J. Bot. 83:1236-1240 (with Edward L. Schneider).

  1996. Wood and bark anatomy of lianoid Indomalesian and Asiatic species of Gnetum.  Bot. Jour. Linnean Soc. 121:1-24. [ PDF ]

  1996. Wood anatomy of Plumbaginaceae.  Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 123:135-147 (with Colby J. Boggs). [ PDF ]

  1996. Materials for anatomical and ultrastructural studies: pollen, wood, and pickled materials.  In, Tod F. Stuessy and S. H. Sohmer, eds., Sampling the green world (pp. 143-156.  Columbia University Press, New York.

  1996.  Plant dispersal and the origin of Pacific island floras.  In, Allen Keast and Scott E. Miller, eds., The origin and evolutioon of Pacific island biotas, New Guinea to eastern Polynesia: patterns and processes (pp. 153-164).  SBP Academic Publishing bv, Amsterdam. [ PDF ]

  1996. Wood, bark, and stem anatomy of Gnetales: a summary.  Int. Jour. Pl. Sci. 157 (supplementary issue):S57-S76. [ PDF ]

  1996. Wood anatomy of Limnanthaceae and Tropaeolaceae in relation to habit and phylogeny. Sida 17:333-342 (with Christopher John Donald). [ PDF ]

  1996. Conductive tissue in Ceratophyllum demersum (Ceratophyllaceae).  Sida 17:437-443 (with Edward L. Schneider). [ PDF ]

  1996. Wood anatomy of Akaniaceae and Bretschneideraceae: a case of near-identity and its systematic implications.  Syst. Bot. 21:607-616. (wood-anatomy-of-akaniaceae_1996 1997?) [ PDF ]

  1996. Vessel origin in Cabomba.  Nordic Jour. Bot. 16:637-642 (with Edward L. Schneider)

  1997. Pentaphragma: a unique wood and its significance. IAWA Jour. 18:3-12. [ PDF ]

  1997. Wood anatomy of Argyroxiphium (Asteraceae): adaptive radiation and ecological correlations.  Jour. Torrey Bot. Soc. 124:1-10. [ PDF ]

  1997. Peter H. Raven--recipient of the 1996 Asa Gray Award.  Syst. Bot. 22:1-3.

  1997. SEM studies on vessels in ferns. 1. Woodsia obtusa (Sprengel) Torrey (Dryopteridaceae).  Amer. Fern Jour. 87:1-8 (with Edward L. Schneider and George Yatskievych). [ PDF ]

  1997. SEM studies on vessels in ferns. 2. Pteridium. Amer. Jour. Bot. 84:581-587 (with Edward L. Schneider). [ PDF ]

  1997. SEM studies on vessels in ferns. 3. Phlebodium and Polystichum.  Int. Jour. Plant Sci. 158:343-349 (with Edward L. Schneider).

  1997. SEM studies on vessels in ferns. 4. Astrolepis. Amer. Fern Jour. 87:43-50 (with Edward L. Schneider). [ PDF ]

  1997. Origins and nature of vessels in monocotyledons. 1. Acorus. Int. Jour. Plant Sci. 158:51-56 (with Edward L. Schneider). [ PDF ]

  1997. Wood anatomy of Buddlejaceae.  Aliso 15:41-56. [ PDF ]

  1997. Origin and nature of vessels in monocotyledons. 2. Juncaginaceae and Scheuchzeriaceae.  Nordic Jour. Bot. 17:397-401 (with Edward L. Schneider).

  1997. Shifting paradigms in island biology.  Aliso 16:85-88.

  1997. Wood anatomy of Resedaceae.  Aliso 16:127-135. [ PDF ]

  1997. Wood anatomy of Portulacaceae and Hectorellaceae: ecological, habital, and systematic implications. Aliso 16:127-153. [ PDF ]

  1998. Wood anatomy of Calyceraceae, with reference to ecology, habit, and systematic relationships.  Aliso 17:63-76 (with Melanie L. DeVore). [ PDF ]

  1998. SEM studies on vessels in ferns. 5. Woodsia scopulina.  Amer. Fern. Jour. 88:17-23. (with Edward L. Schneider).

  1998. SEM studies on vessels in ferns. 6. Woodsia ilvensis, with comments on vessel origin in ferns.  Flora 193: 179-185 (with Edward L. Schneider). [ PDF ]

  1998. Origins and nature of vessels in monocotyledons. 3. Lowiaceae, with comments on rhizome anatomy.  Blumea 43:219-224 (with Edward L. Schneider).

  1998. Origins and nature of vessels in monocotyledons. 4. Araceae subfamily Philodendroideae. Jour. Torrey Bot. Soc. 125:253-260 (with Edward L. Schneider). [ PDF ]

  1998. Origins and nature of vessels in monocotyledons.  5.  Araceae subfamily Colocasioideae. Bot. Jour. Linnean Soc. 128:71-96 (with Edward L. Schneider). [ PDF ]

  1998. SEM studies on vessels in ferns. 7. Microgramma nitida.  Anales Inst. Biol. Univ. Nac. Auton. Mexico, Ser. Bot. 69:1-7 (with Edward L. Schneider).

  1998. Wood anatomy of Caricaceae, with references to systematics and habit.  IAWA Jour. 19:191-206. [ PDF ]

  1998. SEM studies on vessels of ferns. 9. Dicranopteris (Gleicheniaceae) and vessel patterns in leptosporangiate ferns. Amer. Jour. Bot. 85:1028-1932 (with Edward L. Schneider).

  1998. SEM studies on vessels in ferns. 10. Selected Osmundaceae and Schizaeaceae.  Int. Jour. Plant Sci. 159: 788-797 (with Edward L. Schneider).

  1998. Wood anatomy of Wilkesia (Asteraceae) with relation to systematics, organography, and habit. Jour. Torrey Bot. Soc. 125: 261-267. [ PDF ]

  1998. Wood anatomy of Dubautia (Asteraceae: Madiinae) in relation to adaptive radiation.  Pac. Sci. 52: 356-368. [ PDF ]

  1998. Wood and stem anatomy of Petiveria and Rivina (Caryophyllales). IAWA Jour. 19: 383-391. [ PDF ]

  1999. Wood, stem, and root anatomy of Basellaceae with relation to systematics and cambial variants.  Flora 194: 1-12. [ PDF ]

  1999. SEM studies on vessels in ferns. 8. Platyzoma. Australian Jour. of Botany 47: 277-282 (with Edward L. Schneider and Kevin F. Kenneally).

  1999. Vegetative anatomy and relationships of Setchellanthus Taxon 48: 289-302 (with Regis B. Miller). (vegetative-anatomy-and-relationships_1998 ???) [ PDF ]

  1999. Reproductive anatomy and relationships of Setchellanthus Taxon 48: 277-283 (with Hiroshi Tobe and Hugh Iltis). [ PDF ]

  1999. SEM studies on vessels in ferns. 11. Ophioglossum. Bot. Jour. Linnean Soc. 129: 105-114 (with Edward L. Schneider).
 
  1999. SEM studies on vessels in ferns. 12. Marattiaceae, with comments on vessel patterns in eusporangiate ferns. Amer. Jour. Bot. 86: 457-464 (with Edward L. Schneider).

  1999. Wood anatomy of Agdestis (Caryophyllales): systematic position and nature of the successive cambia.  Aliso 18: 35-43. [ PDF ]

  1999. Wood and bark anatomy of Schisandraceae: implications for phylogeny, habit, and vessel evolution.  Aliso 19: 45-55. [ PDF ]

  1999. Wood and stem anatomy of Stegnosperma (Caryophyllales); phylogenetic relationships; nature of lateral meristems and successive cambial activity. IAWA Jour. 20: 149-163. [ PDF ]

  1999. SEM studies on vessels in ferns. 13. Nephrolepis.  Amer. Fern Jour. 89: 171-177 (with Edward L. Schneider).

  1999. SEM studies on vessels in ferns. 15. Selected rosette epiphytes (Aspleniaceae, Elaphoglossaceae, Vittariaceae). Int. Jour. Plant Sci. 160: 1013-1020. (with Edward L. Schneider).

  2000. SEM studies on vessels in ferns. 14. Ceratopteris, and the significance of widespread vessel occurrence in ferns.  Aquatic Botany 66: 1-8 (with Edward L. Schneider).

  2000. Wood and stem anatomy of Sarcobatus (Caryophyllales): systematic and ecological implications. Taxon 49: 27-34. [ PDF ]

  2000. SEM studies on vessels in ferns. 16. Pacific tree ferns (Blechnaceae, Cyatheaceae, Dicksoniaceae).  Pacific Science 54: 75-86 (with Edward L. Schneider).

  2000. SEM studies on vessels in ferns. 17. Psilotaceae. Amer. Jour. Bot. 87: 76-181 (with E. L. Schneider).

  2000. SEM studies on vessels in ferns. 18. Montane cheilanthoid ferns (Pteridaceae) of North America. Aliso: 31-39 (with E. L. Schneider).

  2000. Wood anatomy, stem anatomy, and cambial activity of Barbeuia (Caryophyllales). IAWA Jour. 20: 31-41. [ PDF ]

  2000. Wood and stem anatomy of phytolaccoid and rivinoid Phytolaccaceae (Caryophyllales): ecology, systematics, nature of successive cambia.  Aliso 19: 13-29. [ PDF ]

  2000. SEM studies on vessels in ferns. 19. Marsileaceae.  Amer. Fern Jour. 90: 42-41 (with E. L. Schneider).

  2000. SEM studies on vessels in ferns. 20. Hawaiian Hymenophyllaceae.  Pac. Sci. 54: 365-375 (with E. L. Schneider and Charles H. Lamoureux).

  2000. Wood and bark anatomy of Takhtajania (Winteraceae): phylogenetic and ecological implications. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 87: 317-322. [ PDF ]

  2000. Wood and bark anatomy of Achatocarpaceae. Sida 19: 71-78. [ PDF ]

  2000. SEM studies on vessels in the homophyllous species of Selaginella. Int. Jour. Plant Sci. 161: 967-873 (with Edward L. Schneider).

  2000. Floral development of Nelumbo nucifera (Nelumbonaceae). Int. Jour. Plant Sci. 161 (Suppl. 6): S183-S191. (with Virginia Hayes and Edward L. Schneider) [ PDF ]

  2000. SEM studies on vessels in the heterophyllous species of Selaginella. Jour. Torrey Bot. Soc. 127: 263-270. (with Edward L. Schneider).

   2001. Vessels in ferns: structural, ecological, and evolutionary significance. Amer. J. Bot. 88: 1-13 (with Edward L. Schneider).

   2001. Observations on the vegetative anatomy of Austrobaileya: habital, organographic, and phylogenetic conclusions. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 135: 1-11. [ PDF ]

  2001. Vegetative anatomy of the New Caledonian endemic Amborella trichopoda: new data: relationships with the Illiciales and implications for vessel origin and definition.  Pacific Science 55: 305-312 (with Edward L. Schneider). [ PDF ]

  2001. Wood anatomy of Corynocarpaceae is consistent with placement in Cucurbitales. Syst. Bot. 26: 54-65 (with Regis B. Miller). [ PDF ]

  2001. Wood and stem anatomy of Rhabdodendraceae is consistent with placement in Caryophyllales. l. IAWA Jour. 22:171-181. [ PDF ]

  2001. SEM studies of vessels of Saururaceae. IAWA J. 22:183-192. (with Edward L. Schneider). [ PDF ]

  2001. Wood anatomy of Fouquieriaceae in relation to habit, ecology, and systematics; nature of meristems in wood and bark.  Aliso 19: 137-163. [ PDF ]

  2001. Stem and root anatomical correlations with life-form diversity, ecology, and systematics in Moringa (Moringaceae). Bot. Jour. Linnean Soc. 135:315-348 (with Mark Olson). [ PDF ]

  2001. Wood anatomy of the woody Asteraceae of St. Helena I.; evolutionary significance.  Bot. Jour. Linnean Soc. 137:197-210 [ PDF ]

  2002. The tracheid-vessel element transition in angiosperms involves multiple independent features: cladistic consequences. Amer. Jour. Bot. 89: 185-195 (with Edward L. Schneider).

  2002. Wood and bark anatomy of Salvadoraceae: ecology, relationships, histology of interxylary phloem.  Jour. Torrey Bot. Soc. 129: 10-20. [ PDF ]

  2002. Vessels of Illicium (Illiciaceae): range of pit membrane presence in perforations and other vessel details. Int. Jour. Plant Sci. 163: 755-763. [ PDF ]

  2002. Wood anatomy and successive cambia in Simmondsia (Simmondsiaceae): evidence for inclusion in Caryophyllales s. l. Madroño 49: 158-164. [ PDF ]

  2002. Wood and bark anatomy of Myricaceae: relationships, generic definitions, and ecological interpretations. Aliso 21: 7-29. [ PDF ]

  2003. Perforation plate diversity in Illicium floridanum with respect to organs, provenance, and microtechnical methods. Sida 20: 1047-1057 (with Edward L. Schneider). [ PDF ]

  2003. Wood anatomy of Hawaiian and New Guinean species of Tetramolopium (Asteraceae): ecological and systematic aspects. Pac. Sci. 57: 171-179 (with Timothy K. Lowrey). [ PDF ]

  2003. Wood anatomy of Aextoxicacaceae and Berberidopsidaceae is compatible with their inclusion in Berberidopsidales. Syst. Bot. 28: 317-325. [ PDF ]

  2003. Wood anatomy of Polygonaceae: familial relationships; analysis of a family with exceptional wood diversity. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 141: 25-51. [ PDF ]

  2003. Unusual pit membrane remnants in perforation plates of Cyrillaceae.  Jour. Torrey Bot. Soc. 130: 225-230 (with Edward L. Schneider). [ PDF ]

  2003. Wood and stem anatomy of woody Amaranthaceae s.s.: ecology, systematics, and the problem of defining rays in dicotyledons.  Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 143: 1-19. [ PDF ]

  2004. Perforation plate pit membrane remnants in vessels of Sarraceniaceae: possible indicators of relationship and ecology. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 131: 1-7 (with Edward L. Schneider). [ PDF ]

  2004. Perforation plate pit membrane remnants and other vessel details of Clethraceae: primitive features of wood in Ericales. Int. J. Plant Sci. 165: 369-375 (with Edward L. Schneider). [ PDF ]

  2004. Pit membrane remnants in perforation plates of Hydrangeales; comments on pit membrane remnant occurrence, physiological significance, and phylogenetic distribution in dicotyledons. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 146: 41-51. (with Edward L. Schneider). [ PDF ]

  2004. Pit membrane remnants in perforation plates and other vessel details of Cornales.  Brittonia 56: 275-283 (with Edward L. Schneider). [ PDF ]

  2004. Lateral meristems, successive cambia and their products: a reinterpretation based on roots and stems of Nyctaginaceae.  Bot. Jour. Linnean Soc. 146: 129-143. [ PDF ]

  2004. Vestigial pit membrane remnants in perforation plates and helical thickenings in vessels of Ericaceae. Nordic. Jour. Bot. 23: 353-363 (with Edward L. Schneider). [ PDF ]

  2005. Wood and bark anatomy of Muntingiaceae: a phylogenetic comparison within Malvales s.l. Brittonia 57: 59-67. [ PDF ]

  2005. Wood anatomy of Gentianaceae, tribe Helieae: diversification in relation to ecology, habit, and systematics; the effect of sample diameter. Brittonia 57: 278-291. (with Jason R. Grant). [ PDF ]

  2005. Origin and nature of vessels in monocotyledons. 6. Hanguana (Hanguanaceae). Pac. Sci. 59: 393-398. (with Edward L. Schneider). [ PDF ]

  2005. Origins and nature of vessels in monocotyledons. 7. Haemodoraceae and Philydraceae. Jour. Torrey Bot. Soc. 132: 377-383. [ PDF ]
 
  2005. Wood anatomy of Krameriaceae with comparisons with Zygophyllaceae: phylesis, ecology, and systematics. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 149: 257-27. [ PDF ]

  2006. Asteropeia and Physena (Caryophyllales): a case study in comparative wood anatomy. Brittonia 58: 301-313. [ PDF ]

  2006. Origins and nature of vessels in monocotyledons. 8. Orchidaceae.  Amer. Jour. Bot. 93: 963-971. (with Edward L. Schneider). [ PDF ]

   2007. Successive cambia in Aizoaceae: products and process.  Bot. Jour. Linnean Soc. 153: 141-155. [ PDF ]

   2007.  Bordered pits in ray cells and axial parenchyma: the histology of conduction, storage, and strength in living wood cells. Bot. Jour. Linnean Soc. 153: 157-168. [ PDF ]

  2007. Origin and nature of vessels in monocotyledons. 9. Sansevieria.  South African Jour. Bot. 73: 196-203. (with Edward L. Schneider). (origin-and-nature-of_2007 2006?). [ PDF ]

  2007. Logistic regression in comparative wood anatomy: tracheid types, wood anatomical terminology, and new inferences from the Carlquist and Hoekman southern Californian data set.  Bot. Jour. Linnean Soc. 154: 331-351. (with Julieta A. Rosell, Mark E. Olson, and Rebeca Aguire-Hernandez).
 
  2007. Wood anatomy of Crossosomatales: patterns of wood evolution with relation to phylogeny and ecology.  Aliso 24: 1-18. [ PDF ]

  2007. Scanning electron microscope studies of cycad tracheids.  South African Jour. Bot. 73: 512-517 (with Edward L. Schneider). [ PDF ]

  2007. Successive cambia revisited: ontogeny, histology, diversity, and functional significance.  Jour. Torrey Bot. Soc. 134:301-332 [ PDF ]

  2007. Tracheary elements in ferns: new techniques, observations, and concepts. Amer. Fern Journal 97: 25-37 (with Edward L. Schneider). [ PDF ]

  2008. Origins and nature of vessels in monocotyledons. 10. Boryaceae: xeromorphic xylem structure in a resurrection plant. J. Royal Soc. Western Australia 91: 13-20. (with Edward L. Schneider and Kevin Kenneally). [ PDF ]

  2009. Non-random vessel distribution in woods: patterns, modes, diversity, correlations. Aliso 27: 39-58. [ PDF ]

2009. Microstructure of tracheids of Nymphaea. Int. J. Plant Sci. 170: 457-466. (with Edward L. Schneider and C. Barre Hellquist). [ PDF ]

  2009. Xylem of early angiosperms: Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) has novel tracheid microstructure. Amer. J. Bot. 96: 207-215. (with Edward L. Schneider and C. Barre Hellquist). [ PDF ]

  2009. Distinctive tracheid microstructure in stems of Victoria and Euryale (Nymphaeaceae). Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 159: 52-57. (with Edward L. Schneider). [ PDF ]

  2009. Do tracheid microstructure and the presence of minute crystals link Nymphaeaceae, Cabombaceae, and Hydatellaceae? Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 159: 572-582. (with Edward L. Schneider). [ PDF ]

  2009. Xylem of early angiosperms: novel microstructure in stem tracheids of Barclaya (Nymphaeaceae). Aquatic Botany 91: 61-66.. [ PDF ]

  2009. Darwin on island plants. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 161: 20-25. [ PDF ]

  2009. Xylem heterochrony: an unappreciated key to angiosperm origin and diversification. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 161: 26-65. [ PDF ]

  2010. Origins and nature of vessels in monocotyledons. 11. Primary xylem microstructure, with examples from Zingiberales. Int. J. Plant Sci. 171: 258-266. (with Edward L. Schneider). [ PDF ]

  2010. Origins and nature of vessels in monocotyledons. 12. Pit membrane microstructure diversity in tracheary elements of Astelia. Pacific Sci. 64: 607-618. (with Edward L. Schneider). [ PDF ]

  2010. Caryophyllales: a key group for understanding wood anatomy character states and their evolution. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 164: 342-393. [ PDF ]

  2011. Equisetum xylem: SEM studies and their implications. Amer. Fern J. 101: 133-141. (with Edward L. Schneider). [ PDF ]

  2011. Origins and nature of vessels in monocotyledons. 13. Scanning electron microscopy studies of xylem in large grasses. Int. J. Plant Sci. 172: 345-351. (with Edward L. Schneider). [ PDF ]

  2012. Monocot xylem revisited: new information, new paradigms. Bot. Rev. 18: 87-153. [ PDF ]

  2012. SEM studies of tracheids of Lycopodiaceae; observations on adaptations in Phylloglossum. Amer. Fern J. 102: 273-282. (with Edward L. Schneider and Kevin F. Kenneally). [ PDF ]

  2012. Wood adaptations in Gnetales in a functional, ecological, and evolutionary context. Aliso 30: 33-47. [ PDF ]

  2012. How wood evolves: a new synthesis. Botany 90: 901-840. [ PDF ]

  2013. Interxylary phloem: diversity and functions. Brittonia 65: 488-495. [ PDF ]

  2013. More woodiness/less woodiness: evolutionary avenues, ontogenetic mechanisms. Int. J. Plant Sci. 174: 964-991. [ PDF ]

  2013. Forchhammeria and Stixis (Brassicales): stem and wood anatomical diversity; ecological and phylogenetic conclusions. Aliso 31:59-75. (with Bruce F. Hansen, Hugh H. Iltis, Mark E. Olson, and Daniel L. Geiger). [ PDF ]

  2014. Fibre dimorphism: cell type diversification as an evolutionary strategy in angiosperm woods. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 174: 44-67. [ PDF ]

  2014. Origins and nature of vessels in monocotyledons. 14. Vessellessness in Orontioideae (Araceae): adaptation or relictualism? Nordic J. Bot. (with Edward L. Schneider). [ PDF ]

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